洁净煤技术

2019, (05) 1-7

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褐煤低温热解分级利用现状分析及展望
Present situation analysis and prospect of classification and utilizationof lignite pyrolysis at low temperature

丁肖肖;李洪娟;王亚涛;
DING Xiaoxiao,LI Hongjuan,WANG Yatao

摘要(Abstract):

我国“富煤,贫油,少气”的能源现状,决定了很长时间我国仍将以煤炭为主。其中中低阶煤占目前煤炭总探明储量的50%以上,为高效利用褐煤等中低阶煤炭资源,笔者对我国褐煤资源的分布特点、物理特性及其干燥脱水、压缩成型和低温热解加工利用现状进行了分析,重点综述了褐煤低温热解技术研究现状,对目前广泛应用的固体热载体热解技术、气体热载体和气-固热载体进行了总结,并从反应器类型、热载体类型、适用范围、进料粒度、目标产品、工业化程度等方面对热解工艺进行了对比,指出了现阶段褐煤分级利用过程中存在的产品附加值不高、焦油收率低、余热回收和粉尘处理等关键技术问题,并对未来褐煤热解分级炼制工艺进行了展望,提出了通过提高焦油等热解产物的附加值来延伸产品链、开发与其他物质的共热解工艺、完善现有反应器并开发新的热解反应器、通过工艺调整提高褐煤中氧等元素利用率及大型化发展的必要性。提出未来褐煤等中低阶煤综合利用的建议,将褐煤热解提质技术与现有的煤气化、液化、MTO、MTP等煤化工技术集成,并通过设置适宜的产品目标和设计合理的工艺路线,得到多种高附加值清洁燃料、化工原料以及热能、电力等产品,有效延长褐煤产业链,实现低阶煤分级分质利用,促进我国煤炭转化产业结构调整和优化升级。
The China′s energy situation of "rich coal,poor oil and little gas" determines that China will still be dominated by coal for a long time. Medium and low grade coal accounts for more than 50% of the total proven reserves of coal. In order to make full use of medium and low grade coal (such as lignite) resources of China effectively,the distribution characteristics and physical characteristics of lignite resources in China,as well as the technology of drying,dehydration,compression molding and low-temperature pyrolysis processing and utilization were analyzed in the paper. The research status of low-temperature pyrolysis technology of lignite was emphatically reviewed,and the widely used pyrolysis technology of solid heat carriers,and the gas heat carriers and gas-solid heat carriers were summarized. Moreover,the reactors,types of heat carrier,application,feedstock,production,and degree of industrialization of the typical upgrading lignite pyrolysis techniques at home and abroad were also compared. Furthermore,the key technology issues of lignite upgrading and utilization including products with low-added value,low tar yield,waste heat recovery,and dust treatment were pointed out. The prospect of lignite pyrolysis and classification refining technology in the future was also discussed. In addition,it was necessary to extend the product chain by improving the added value of tar and other pyrolysis products,co-pyrolysis with other materials,design and development of reactor,the higher utilization rate of oxygen and other elements in lignite through process adjustment,and large-scale development. Finally,the suggestions of comprehensive utilization of low rank coal lignite in the future were pointed out. The ignite pyrolysis technology and the existing coal gasification,liquefaction,MTO and MTP coal chemical technology should be integrated. A variety of high value-added clean fuels,chemical raw materials and heat energy,electric power are obtained by setting the appropriate product objectives and designing reasonable technology route.The lignite industry chain should be effectively extendyed to realize the classification and quality utilization of low-grade coal,and promote the structural adjustment and optimization and upgrading of China's coal industry.

关键词(KeyWords): 褐煤;低温热解;分级利用;提质
lignite;low-temperature thermolysis;grade use;upgrading

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作者(Author): 丁肖肖;李洪娟;王亚涛;
DING Xiaoxiao,LI Hongjuan,WANG Yatao

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